On 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India, drafted by Dr. BR Ambedkar, came into force and replaced the Government of India Act, 1935, as the governing document of the country, completing the transition towards becoming a sovereign democratic republic. The constitution was passed on November 26, 1949. However, because the Indian National Congress had passed a resolution in 1930, fixing January 26 as the independence day, the assembly, after passing the constitution, decided to wait till January 26, 1950, to bring it (the constitution) into force.
Why 26th January?
Ever wondered, if India got freedom on August 15, 1947 why it took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to declare India as republic? On the occasion of 68th Republic Day, let’s see the reason:
1927: Bhagat Singh along with few other leaders came forward with ‘complete freedom’ initiative. This idea inspired young Congress leaders including Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose.
1928: A resolution was passed by the Indian National Congress for ‘Dominion Status’ but the British rejected the proposal stating that India is not capable for the Dominion Status.
1929: During the Lahore session, the Congress chose Jawaharlal Nehru as the President and demanded for Purna Swaraj i.e. complete independence.
1930: To celebrate the occasion, last Sunday of January (which surprisingly fell on 26th ) was fixed. Hence Independence day was celebrated with Nehru hoisting the flag on the banks of Ravi river in Lahore.
1947: On August 15, India gained complete freedom from the British.
1949: Indian Constitution was formed by November 26. Those part of the first Independence Day celebration (January 26, 1930) came to a decision to celebrate the Republic Day on January 26. Hence, waited for two months for the same. And this is how the Republic Day is celebrated on January 26.