Evolution of operating system (OS)
Evolution of operating system (OS)


An operating system (OS) is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs in a computer. The application programs make use of the operating system by making requests for services through a defined application program interface (API).

What is operating system all definitions?

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between computer user and computer hardware. An operating system is software which performs all the basic tasks like file management, memory management, process management, handling input and output, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers

The types of operating systems in computer are:

Batch Operating System.

Multi-processor Operating System.

Multiprogramming Operating System.

Distributed Operating System.

Time sharing Operating System.

Network Operating System.

Mobile Operating System.

Multi-tasking Operating System.

Evolution of Operating System:

Operating Systems has evolved in past years. It went through several changes before getting its original form. These changes in the operating system are known as the evolution of operating systems. The evolution of the operating system went through four generations. Let us see these generations in detail.

ALSO READ:-This Day in History: Steve Wozniak Tests First Prototype of the Apple-I Computer

The operating system can be classified into four generations, as follows:

  • First Generation
  • Second Generation
  • Third Generation
  • Fourth Generation

First Generation (1945-1955)

It is the beginning of the development of electronic computing systems which are substitutes for mechanical computing systems. Because of the drawbacks in mechanical computing systems like, the speed of humans to calculate is limited and humans can easily make mistakes. In this generation there is no operating system, so the computer system is given instructions which must be done directly.

Example − Type of operating system and devices used is Plug Boards.

Second Generation

The phase from 1955 to 1965 marked the second generation of Operating Systems. The systems in this generation were regarded as Batch Systems. These were known as batch operating systems as the jobs to be done were supplied in a batch to the machine. A Batch referred to a set of similar tasks or jobs. Job Control Language was used to create the instructions to execute the job. The instructions were punched on a card which was then loaded onto a tape that had several such cards and then it was finally sent to the processor.

Third Generation (1965-1980)

Multi-Programmed Batched System

The evolution of operating systems embarks the third generation with multi-programmed batched systems. In the third generation, the operating system was designed to serve numerous users simultaneously. Interactive users can communicate with a computer via an online terminal, making the operating system multi-user and multiprogramming. It is used to execute several jobs that should be kept in the main memory. The processor determines which program to run through job scheduling algorithms.

Example: Windows and IOS are examples of multi-programmed batched operating systems.

ALSO READ:-Apple has released iOS 16.5.1,have bug fixes and other improvements, How to Get It

Fourth Generation (1980-Now)

In this generation the operating system is used for computer networks where users are aware of the existence of computers that are connected to one another.

At this generation users are also comforted with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which is an extremely comfortable graphical computer interface, and the era of distributed computing has also begun.

With the occurrence of new wearable devices like Smart Watches, Smart Glasses, VRGears, and others, the demand for conventional operating systems has also increased.

And, with the onset of new devices like wearable devices, which includes Smart Watches, Smart Glasses, VR gears etc, the demand for unconventional operating systems is also rising.

Example − Type of operating system and devices used is personal computers.

ALSO READ:-All Types of Input Devices in Computer

Join NewsTrack Whatsapp group
Related News