University of Maryland: Scientists are endeavoring to develop a revolutionary lunar dust mitigation solution, taking inspiration from gecko skin and traditional lint rollers, to safeguard spacesuits from the pernicious effects of abrasive Moon dust. As prominent spacefaring nations meticulously devise lunar exploration missions, they are confronted with a ubiquitous peril - the razor-sharp particles constituting the lunar topsoil, known as regolith. This lunar dust exhibits an uncanny fluidity, infiltrating even the minutest crevices and seams, posing a formidable challenge for removal. Enterprising researchers now propose a low-tech remedy, drawing inspiration from the adhesive properties of gecko skin and the familiar lint-rollers utilized for garment maintenance.
During the epoch of Apollo lunar exploration, astronauts encountered an unforeseen adversary - Moon dust. This arid and fine-grained lunar soil, replete with jagged edges, behaves akin to a liquid, readily adhering to surfaces. Comparable to its terrestrial counterpart, silica dust, which inflicts silicosis, a debilitating lung ailment, Moon dust displays a proclivity for infiltrating spacesuit seams and clinging tenaciously. Even today, spacesuits from the Apollo program, exhibited at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, bear testimony to the enduring presence of lunar dust. Consequently, it looms as a formidable hazard for forthcoming lunar missions, imperiling both personnel and equipment.
Enter the realm of innovation, as researchers hailing from the University of Maryland conceptualize a groundbreaking apparatus primed to expeditiously eradicate lunar dust. In essence, this device emulates the operation of a lint-roller but dispenses with conventional adhesives in favor of synthetic gecko skin. Astronauts can simply glide this device across spacesuit surfaces and equipment, facilitating the effortless elimination of lunar dust. Christine Hartzell, the lead researcher, enthuses, "Our findings indicate that it effectively captures approximately 90% of the simulated lunar dust we disperse. Its portability and lack of reliance on external power sources make it an ideal companion for astronauts during extravehicular activities."
Following a lunar excursion around the Taurus-Littrow valley near the Sea of Serenity, geologist and retired astronaut Harrison Schmitt relayed an unusual observation to Gene Cernan - a distinct odor reminiscent of gunpowder permeated the lunar module. The Moon dust that had adhered to their spacesuits and footwear during lunar surface sojourns had become suspended within the lander module, resulting in Schmitt experiencing an ailment colloquially referred to as "lunar dust hay fever." Remarkably, these symptoms dissipated the subsequent day. The impending device under development may serve as a preventative measure against such afflictions, as well as mitigate alterations to the thermal properties of spacesuits and equipment following exposure to Moon dust.
Geckos, with their minute skin folds, possess an inherent ability to effortlessly cling to vertical surfaces and ceilings, attributable to an expanded surface area that augments traction. Paradoxically, this mirrors the underlying reason why lunar dust, with its abrasive jagged edges, adheres so tenaciously. Synthetic gecko skin has been successfully recreated in laboratories and is deployed in robotics for enhanced gripping capabilities. However, a notable downside is the proclivity of synthetic gecko skin to accumulate dust. Remarkably, this drawback, prevalent on Earth, metamorphoses into a distinct advantage on the lunar terrain.
In terrestrial applications, conventional lint-roller sheets are conveniently torn off and discarded, a luxury that remains unattainable on the Moon, particularly with synthetic gecko skin. Consequently, scientists are exploring several specialized mechanisms for cleansing these lunar lint-rollers. Among these prospective methods are a centrifuge, an electron beam designed to obliterate accumulated dust, or an electrodynamic dust shield, consisting of sub-surface wires beneath the synthetic gecko skin, which can expel dust upon activation. Additionally, the researchers are diligently engineering the synthetic gecko skin to withstand the extreme temperature fluctuations prevalent on the Moon, where daytime temperatures soar to a scorching 106°C, only to plummet to a frigid -183°C during lunar nights.